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KEY WEST REGISTER CERTIFIED DIVE DIRECTORY
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Florida Keys
Key Largo area
Amoray Dive Resort
104250 Overseas Highway
Key Largo,.Florida 33037
amoray.com
amoraydive@aol.com
(305)451-3595 Fax: (305)453-9516

Aqua-Nut Divers
104220 Overseas Highway
Key Largo, Florida 33037
kellysmo@aol.com

            
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Medallion created by Internationally awarded Wildlife Artist Mr. Dave Cusenza of the Pacific Northwest
Medallion $99.95 postage paid Florida Residents add sales tax
OCEANSAFE.ORG Ocean Safe Registryä
______________________________________________________________

Capt. Slate's Atlantis Dive Center                                                           
51 Garden Cove Drive
Key Largo, Florida 33037
dive@captainslate.com
(305)451-3020 Fax: (305)451-9240

Caribbean Watersports
PO Box 781
Key Largo , Fl 33037
cws@aol.com
(305) 852-4707 FAX: (305) 852-5160

Dixie Divers
103400 Overseas Hwy
Key Largo, Fl 33037
DixDivers@aol.com
(305) 453-9588 Fax: (305) 453-0635

HMS Minnow Charters
PO Box 1104
Key Largo , Fl 33037
hmsminnow@msn.com
(305) 451-7834

Horizon Divers
43 Gumbo Limbo Ave
Key Largo, FL 33037
h2osphere@aol.com
(305) 453-3535 FAX: (305) 453-3511

Island Reef Diver
3 Seagate Blvd.
Key Largo, Florida 33037
isldiver@bellsouth.net
(305)453-9456 Fax: (305)453-9405

It's A Dive
103800 Overseas Hwy.
Key Largo , Fl 33037
wesley@itsadive.com
(305) 453-9881

Jules Undersea Park
51 Shoreland Dr.
Key Largo, Fl 33037
info@jul.com

Keys Diver
99696 Overseas Highway
Key Largo, Florida 33037
tbfirm@aol.com
(305) 451-1177 Fax: (305) 451-6389

Ocean Divers              @
522 Caribbean Drive
Key Largo , Fl. 33037
(305) 451-1113

Sea Dwellers Dive Center
99850 Overseas Highway
Key Largo , Florida 33037
sdwellers@aol.com
(305)451-3640  
                                                                  
Sharky's
1-800-935-3483

The Dive Shop at Ocean Reef
10 Fishing Village
Ocean Reef Club
Key Largo, Florida 33037
diveshopor@aol.com
(305)367-3051

Quiescence Diving Services
P O Box 1570
Key Largo, Fl 33037
info@keylargodiving.com
(305) 451-2440

Wreck Diver Charters
P. O. Box 401
Key Largo. Florida 33037
wrkdiver@gate.net
(305) 451-3900

Islamorada area    
Bud and Mary's Dive Center
P. O. Box 1126
Islamorada, Florida 33036
Imf63059@aol.com
(305)664-2211 Fax: (305)664-1007

Conch Republic Divers
90800 Overseas Highway
Tavernier, Florida 33070
capnt@terranova.net
(305)852-1655 Fax:(305)853-0031

History of Diving Museum
305.664.9737
divingmuseum.org

Florida Keys Dive Center
P. O. Box 391
Tavernier, Florida 33070
scuba@floridakeysdiverctr.com
(305)852-4599 Fax: (305)852-1293

Holiday Isle Dive Shop
Kristie Newth
P. O. Box 482
Islamorada, Florida 33036
diveshop@divetheisle.com
(305)664-3483 Fax: (305)664-4145

Lady Cyana Divers
Gloria Teague
P. O. Box 1157
Islamorada, Florida 33036
ladycyana@ladycyana.com
(305)664-8717 Fax: (305)664-4443

Ocean Quest
85500 Overseas Hwy
Islamorada, Fl 33036
mail@oceanquestdivecenter.com
(305) 664-4401

Rainbow Reef Dive Center
85500 Overseas Highway
Islamorada, Florida 33036
divers@rainbowreef-divecenter.com
(305)664-4600 Fax: (305)664-2007

Sea Raven
87770 Overseas Hwy
Islamorada, Fl 33036
mail@searavendiver.com
(305) 853-0625
Tavernier Dive Center
P. O. Box 465
Tavernier, Florida 33070
tavdive@tavernierdivecenter.com
(305)852-4007 Fax: (305)852-0869
Marathon & Lower Keys area
Abyss Dive Center
13175 Overseas Highway
Marathon, Florida 33050
abysdive@reefnet.com
(305) 743-2126 Fax: (305) 743-7081

Aquatic Adventures Dive Center
P. O. Box 510378
Key Colony Beach, Florida 33051
aquatic@keysconnection.com
(305)743-2444 Fax: (305)289-0562

Captain Hook’s Dive Center
11833 Overseas Highway
Marathon, Florida 33050
Grange@marathonkey.com
(305)743-2444 (305)289-1374

Capt, Morgan's Dive Tours
P O Box 510299
Key Colony Beach, Fl 33051
morgansdiving@aol.com
(305) 289-0905
Cudjoe Dive Center                                                               Dive Charity supporter
477 Drost Drive
Cudjoe Key, Florida 33042
(305)745-2357 Fax: (305)745-2357

Fantasea Divers
4650 Overseas Highway
Marathon, Florida 33050
divexs@aol.com
(305)743-5422 Fax: (305)743-4739

Hall’s Diving Center
1994 Overseas Highway
Marathon, Florida 33050
hallsdiving.com
(305)743-5929 Fax: (305)743-8168

InnerspaceDive Center
MM 29.5
Big Pine Key, FL
(305) 872-2319

Keylypso Charters 12648 Overseas Hwy
Marathon, Fl 33050
keylypso@bellsouth.net
(305) 743-7655
Looe Key Dive Center
PO Box 509
Ramrod Key , Fl 33042-0509
looekeydivecenter.com
305-872-2215 FAX: (305) 872-3786

Sea-Clusive Charters
P O Box 431961
Big Pine Key, Fl 33043
(305) 872-3940
fax (305) 872-0111
Sombrero Reef Explorers
19 Sombrero Blvd
Marathon , Fl 33050
captfred@sombreroreef.com
Tildens Scuba Center
61 Hawks Cay Blvd
Duck Key ,Fl 33050
diving@hawkscay.com
(305)289-4931

The Diving Site
12399 Overseas Highway
Marathon, Florida 33050
divingsite@aol.com
(305) 289-1021 Fax: (305) 289-0046

Tropic Isle Dive Center
11499 Overseas Highway
Marathon , Fl. 33050
jim@floridakeysdive.com
(305)289-0303 Fax (305) 289-0745

Underseas, Inc.
P. O. Box 219
Big Pine Key, Florida 33043
diveuseas@aol.com
(305)872-2700 Fax: (305)872-0080

Key West area
Captain's Corner
125 Ann Street
Key West, Florida 33040
www.captainscorner.com
(305) 296-8918

Dive Key West
3128 North Roosevelt Blvd.
Key West, Florida 33040
info@divekeywest.com
(305)296-3823 Fax: (305)296-0609

Key West Diving Society
951 Caroline St.
Key West, Florida 33040
keywestdivingsociety.com
(305) 292-3221

Lost Reef Adventures
261 Margaret Street
Key West, Florida 33040
lostreefkw@aol.com
(305) 296-9737

South Point Divers        @
Key West, Florida 33040
www.southpointdivers.com
(305) 292-9778

Subtropic Dive Center
1605 N Roosevelt Blvd.
Key West, Fl 33040
(305)-296-9914
Salvage and diving excursions

The concept of marine salvage has been recognized by the law since the times of Byzantine Empire. In modern times, the Salvage Convention of 1910 was adopted by an international panel and ratified by the United States in 1913. The U.S. also adopted a Salvage Act in 1912 to supplement the Convention and address new circumstances.

Unlike land based volunteer acts to save property, the person who saves property at sea is entitled to a reward which is generously computed in light of the fundamental public policy involved. Public policy, to encourage mariners to provide prompt service in emergencies, is to award compensation much greater than the value of the actual labor involved.

The formal requisites of an act of salvage, in a way similar to those required for general average, are the following:
1) there must be a serious peril from which the vessel or property could not have been rescued without the salvor's assistance;
2) the salvor's act must be voluntary (no legal or official duty to render assistance);
3) the act must be successful in saving all or part of the property at risk.

When the property has been abandoned, anyone may become a salvor and if the owner later wants to reclaim his property, he would take it subject to a lien for the salvage claim. The owner in possession of the property, however, does not have to accept an offer of salvage. While the typical act of salvage involves the rescue and tow of a vessel at sea, the range of situations which can constitute salvage is quite broad. Among examples of salvage are the following: the escorting of a distressed ship to a position where aid can be rendered; giving information on how to avoid an obstruction such as an ice floe or to avoid running aground; carrying a message which results in the provision of emergency assistance. In general, it can be said that, so long as a vessel is in danger, almost any voluntary act which contributes to its ultimate safety or rescue may qualify as an act of salvage.

As was noted earlier, certain tests must be met for an act to qualify for salvage. For property to become subject to salvage it must be on the water or on a beach or reef. It was also mentioned that since the act of salvage must be voluntary, a person who is under a duty to provide assistance cannot claim as a salvor. A crew member, for example, would not qualify under any circumstance. The same goes for passengers. Public employees such as firemen or even licensed pilots are not entitled to an award for saving property if it was their duty to do so. On the other hand, a salvage claim is not defeated by the fact that the salving vessel is professionally equipped to render assistance or engage in salvage operations. It should be noted that, while nothing prevents a government from claiming salvage, the U.S. Coast Guard has long provided a rescue service with a traditional policy of not claiming salvage for its rescue efforts.

For what concerns the amount of a salvage award, a court opinion from The Blacwall is often cited:

"Courts of admiralty usually consider the following circumstances as the main ingredients in determining the amount of the award to be decreed for a salvage service:
"(1) The labor expended by the salvors in rendering the salvage service.
"(2) The promptness, skill and energy displayed in rendering the service and saving the property.
"(3) The value of the property employed by the salvors in rendering the service, and the dangers to which such property was exposed.
"(4) The risk incurred by the salvors in securing the property from the impending peril.
"(5) The value of the property saved.
"(6) The degree of danger from which the property was rescued."


The items taken into account in assessing the value of the property are the ship, freight and cargo. The salvage award can never be greater than the value of the salved property and will always be substantially lower except in the case of abandoned or derelict property. Where substantial values are involved, awards tend to be under 20% of the value of the property.

Salvage awards are for salvage of property, not life.The 1912 statute does not provide for awards for the pure salvage of life unaccompanied by salvage of property. Salvors of human life, however, who have taken part in the services rendered on the occasion of the accident giving rise to salvage, are entitled to a fair share of the remuneration awarded to the salvors of the ship, her cargo and accessories. In other words, the trial court will also consider moral as well as economic issues.
There are two types of salvage contracts. One is the agreement in extremis entered into by the master of a vessel in danger under the stress of circumstances. The second type can be entered into by the owner and a professional salvage team after the immediate peril has ceased. The in extremis agreement will be enforced only if the court finds that it has been fairly negotiated and not entered into under duress with the result of an extortionary bargain for the salvor. If the court finds that a form of extortion was attempted, it may reduce the award or forfeit it entirely.

A suit to enforce a maritime lien for salvage can be brought both in rem against the vessel or in personam against any person who may be liable. The trend for the resolution of salvage disputes, however, seems to be arbitration even if extrajudicial resolutions are not necessarily binding on crews of salving vessel.
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Treasure information on coinage found:
Atocha Coin Design
The coin design in use during the Atocha time period, referred to as shield type,
incorporated the Spanish coat of arms or shield on the obverse side and a cross
representing the union of Church and State on the reverse. The elements of the
design between the three major mints, Mexico City, Lima and Potosi, although
similar, have features which make differentiation possible. This is especially true
of the Mexican versus Peruvian coins. Shield type cob coinage was first struck at
the Mexico City mint in 1572 and ceased production in 1733 when it was replaced
by the machine struck pillar dollar. The Lima mint also struck shield type coins in
1572, but only a few coins were minted before operations ceased the same year.
The mint reopened for a 12-year period between 1577 to 1588 using the same design.
Potosi began striking coins in 1574 using dies from the Lima mint. Shield type production
ceased at Potosi in 1652 when it was replaced by the pillar and waves design. Dated
coins first appeared at the Mexico City mint in 1607 followed ten years later at the Potosi
mint in 1617.

Shield elements on the obverse identify lands controlled by the king. Displayed is the
Hapsburg Shield that appears on cobs minted during the reign of the Hapsburg kings
beginning with Philip II (1556-1598) and ending with Charles II (1665-1700). The shield
design changed with the first Bourbon King, Philip V in 1700. Although not displayed, its
primary identification feature is the prominent three Bourbon fleurs-de-lis arrangement
located at the center of the shield.
1. Crown.
2. Quadrants of castles and lions – Kingdoms of Castile and Leon.
3. Mintmark: Mexico City – M (with a small o above the M), Lima
or Potosi – P, sometimes located to the right of the shield.
4. Denomination - Usually located to the right of the shield.
5. Horizontal bar – Austria.
6. Diagonal lines – Old Burgundy.
7. Vertical Lion – Flanders. Sometimes switched with 8.
8. Eagle – Tyrol. Sometimes switched with 7.
9. Lion – Brabant.
10. Fleur-de-lis – New Burgundy or France.
11. Pomegranate – Granada.
12. Assayer – Usually located to the left of the shield, either Roman
numerals or Arabic.
13. X with eagles in the left and right quadrants – Naples and Sicily.
14. Vertical Lines – Aragon.

The cross on the reverse clearly identifies coins struck at the Mexico City mint. The
Greek cross is found on Lima and Potosi coins. It consists of two intersecting lines
in the shape of a large plus sign. The Florenzada cross, a large plus sign flared on
the ends and topped with spheres, is found exclusively on Mexico City coins.



15. Cross.
16. Lions and Castles – Found within the four quadrants of the cross
and representing the regions of Castile and Leon. Their positions
are sometimes transposed.
17. Tressure – Arcs located at the ends of the cross and quadrants
making up the border.
Legends are the words placed around the circumference of both sides of the coin.
Legends are usually incomplete or often times totally missing, but when full read
differently on Mexican cobs versus their Peruvian counterparts. The meaning
however, is the same and reads:
Kings name, by the grace of God, King of Spain and of the Indies.
In the actual legend, the letter V is always used in place of the letter U. The King’s
name is PHILIPPVS or PHILIPPVS II (1556-1598), PHILIPPVS III (1598-1621),
PHILLPPVS IIII (1621-1665), CAROLVS II (1665-1700), PHILIPPVS V (1700-1746)
or LVDOVICVS (1724) depending on the time period. King is REX, and is ET, Grace
of God is DEI GRATIA or D.G. for short, of Spain is HISPANIARVM and lastly of the Indies
is INDIARVM.
Starting clockwise at the 12 o’clock position, the legends read:
OBVERSE SIDE (undated)
Mexico City: NAME OF KING DEI GRATIA
Lima and Potosi: NAME OF KING D.G. HISPANIARVM
REVERSE SIDE (undated)
Mexico City: HISPANIARVM ET INDIARVM REX
Lima and Potosi: ET INDIARVM REX
Legends change slightly for dated coins. Mexican coins display the date in the
10 – 11 o’clock position on the obverse side necessitating a compressed legend.
The Peruvian coins display the date in the same position but on the reverse where
there is ample space for the addition. A new word appears on the Potosi coins, ANO,
which means date.
Legend changes are:
OBVERSE SIDE (dated)
Mexico City: NAME OF KING DEI G. DATE
Lima and Potosi: unchanged
REVERSE SIDE (dated)
Mexico City: unchanged
Lima and Potosi: ET INDIARVM REX ANO DATE
There were no dated Lima shield type cobs.
The assayer mark guaranteed the coins proper weight and purity. It consisted of the chief
assayers initial or a monogrammed representation of his name. Records of the assayer
names and dates of tenure are important for dating the coin. Unfortunately, many such
records do not exist or are still buried in the Spanish archives.
ASSAYER MARKS FOR SHIELD TYPE COINS
MEXICO CITY - MINTMARK = M (small o over the M)
DATE
1572
thru

1607
1607-1608
1608-1609
1610-1617
1618-1634
1634-1665
1666-1677
1677-1705
1705-1723
1724-1728
1729-1730
1730
1730-1733
ASSAYER MARK
O
F
F (small o over the F)
F&D (small o over the D)
F
A
F
D
P
G
L
J
D
R
G
F
ASSAYER NAME
Name and exact
dates for the period
1577-1607 are

(first dated coin)




Geronimo Bercerra
Martin Lopez
Jose Eustaquio de Leon

Nicolas de Rojas

Felipe Rivas Angulo
LIMA- MINTMARK = P
DATE
1572
1577-1588
ASSAYER MARK
X
D, D (small o over 2nd D)
ASSAYER NAME
Xines Martinez
Deigo de la Torre
POTOSI - MINTMARK = P
DATE
1574-1576?
1574-1579?
1575-1579?
1580?
1581-1586
1586-1589
1589-1593?
1593-1596?
1596-1605?
1605-1613?
1613
1613-1616
1616-1617
1618
1618-1623
1622-1623
1624-1626
1627-1636
1628
1636-1640
1640-1643
1643-1648
1644-1648?
1645-1648?
1646
1646-1647
1647-1649
1649-1651
1651-1652
ASSAYER MARK
R
M, L
B
C, B, X/S, L
B
A
B
R, RL (monogrammed)
B
R (curved leg R)
C
Q
M
RAL (monogrammed)
T
P
P, P (small o over 2nd P)
T
P
T/R
F/R
T/R
T
R
V
P
Z
O (dot in center of O)
E
ASSAYER NAME
Alonso de Rincon
Exact dates and some
names for the period
1574-1586 is unknown
Juan Ballesteros
Juan Alvarez
Juan Ballesteros
Baltasar Ramos Leceta
Hernando Ballesteros
Baltasar Ramos Leceta

Agustin de la Quadra
(first dated coin)
Baltasar Ramos Leceta
Juan Ximenez de Tapia
Luis de Peralta
Pedro Martin de Palencia
Juan Ximenez de Tapia
Luis de Peralta
Pedro Trevino
(in various
monogrammed forms)
Juan Ximenez de Tapia
Felipe Ramirez de Arellano
Geronimo Velazquez
Luis de Peralta
Pedro Zambrano
Juan Rodriguez de Roas
Antonio de Ergueta

 

 
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